A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement. They are CNS depressants and interact with brain activity causing its deceleration. Various kinds of sedatives can be distinguished, but the majority of them affect the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In spite of the fact that each sedative acts in its own way, most produce relaxing effects by increasing GABA activity.This group is related to hypnotics. The term sedative describes drugs that serve to calm or relieve anxiety, whereas the term hypnotic describes drugs whose main purpose is to initiate, sustain, or lengthen sleep. Because these two functions frequently overlap, and because drugs in this class generally produce dose-dependent effects (ranging from anxiolysis to loss of consciousness) they are often referred to collectively as sedative-hypnotic drugs.Sedatives can be used to produce an overly-calming effect (alcohol being the most common sedating drug). In the event of an overdose or if combined with another sedative, many of these drugs can cause deep unconsciousness and even death.
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Side Effects of Sedatives

A tranquilizer or sedative is a drug that induces sleep by lessening excitement or irritability. They are CNS relaxants and interfere with normal brain activity, thereby causing the slowing down of nerve impulses. Different types of sedatives can easily be identified, but most of them act on the benzodiazepine neurotransmitter GABA. The GABA is a monoaminergic neurotransmitter that is responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses through channels in the brain. It is normally activated during periods of relaxation and sleep. For many people, even after long use, the effects of sedative and tranquilizer drugs become more unpleasant. The desire to take them often becomes an addiction that causes the individual to require larger doses to produce the same desired effect. In this case, the individual will require even greater doses to bring about a quick result. As time passes, the user will require more sedative to bring about the desired effect, which will result in the individual being unable to continue without these pills. Sedatives, although generally harmless, have the potential to cause serious side effects, especially if taken for a long period of time. If you are taking sedatives regularly for pain relief of an extended nature, you should consult your physician for alternatives to sedation. These could include natural alternatives such as herbal creams, acupuncture, hypnotherapy, or therapy through hypnosis, meditation, or self-hypnosis. These techniques are not only safer, they are also usually more effective. If these sedatives do not produce the desired effect, it is important to discuss alternative methods with your doctor. Other sedatives affect brain activity in other ways, producing what is referred to as a "tranquiliser". A tranquilizer can allow the person to remain awake and alert enough to respond to their surroundings, although they would not be fully awake. This type of sedative can be very useful for driving, performing medical tasks, or working to overcome anxiety. Although it can be extremely relaxing, these tranquilizers have the potential to become addictive if taken in large quantities over a long period of time. Once the user has gotten used to the effects of the tranquilizer, they may find themselves requiring even higher doses to bring on the same effects. If the user is addicted to tranquillisers, they could also find that their tolerance for the drug increases, which could make it harder for them to stop using the drug. Sedatives are often administered during procedures to prevent any major injury or complications during the procedure. While this can be beneficial from a safety and cost standpoint, there can sometimes be side effects from the sedative itself. Some of the side effects of the sedative can include drowsiness, blurred vision, slowed heart rate, and slurred speech. Slurred speech is one of the side effects when a patient undergoes anesthesia for surgery because the slurred speech is caused by the lack of oxygen to the brain. The slowed heart rate is caused by the low blood pressure in the arteries. These side effects can be overcome by carefully following the doctor's instructions during and after the procedure. As you can see, while sedatives are an extremely effective drug for many medical and surgical situations, they can also be highly addictive and dangerous. Always keep the proper amount of the drug at hand and never rely on the drug for a dependency. If you suspect that you are dependent on sedatives, you should contact your doctor immediately and discuss how to rehabify yourself. With proper care and treatment, a chronic sedative addiction can be treated and overcome.